Category: <span>Networking</span>

We are going to configure VRRP between the 2 pairs of routers and the expected behavior, setup as per below: Setup: 1. Routers PE1,PE2,FW1 and FW2 are connected to the same Layer 2 Switch and belongs to the same VLAN. 2. L2-Switch will just function as Layer 2 switch (subnet 192.168.2.240/29) 3. VRRP is configured between PE1 & PE2 3. VRRP is configured between FW1 & FW2   Fig.1 IP & VRRP Configuration: L2-SWITCH L2-SWITCH#conf t a. Setup access VLAN…

Cisco Networking

Fiber Optic Transceivers are wavelength-specific lasers that can convert electrical data signals into optical signals via optical fiber. It is basically a device that uses fiber optical technology in sending and receiving data. Here’s the classifications:   Based on form factors 1. XENPAK – original 10G pluggable optics using SC connector type 2. X2 -provides 10G connectivity up to 40km on SMF and successor of XENPAK. Also used SC connectors 3. GBIC -short for Gigabit Interface Converter, is a standard…

Datacenter Networking

Autonomous System or AS is a set of routable IP prefixes that belongs to a network or collections of networks managed by a single entity such as ISP, corporate network, university, etc. and maintain a single or common routing policy. Each AS has to be represented by unique number called Autonomous System Number or ASN to control and exchange routing information with others. Two formats of ASNs: 2-byte ASN (16-bit number) –> provides for 65,536 ASNS (0 to 65535) .…

Networking

In routing world, Administrative Distance refers to the reliability of the routing protocol. It is equivalent to Juniper’s Route Preference and Huawei’s Preference. It is important to consider these values as in the scenario that there are multiple routes to a destination (with same prefix length), the route (learned via the routing protocol) with the lowest value is preferred. Table below will show the values for respective platform.   Routing Protocol Cisco(AD) Juniper (RP) Huawei(P) Connected Interface 0 0 0…

Networking

UTP or Unshielded Twisted Pair is a type of copper cabling used in LANs and has several categories based on the TIA/EIA 568 standard namely as CAT3,CAT4,CAT5,CAT5E and CAT6. Common connector used with these UTP cables are RJ-45. Most common used now are CAT5e as it supports up to 1Gbps for 100 meters, and now CAT6 is becoming popular to LAN and datacenter networks as it supports 1Gbps for 100 meters and up to 10Gbps for 50 meters. As of…

Networking

“Bogon” or coined from the word “bogus”, In computer world,  these are IP addresses that have not been officially assigned to an entity such as IANA or Internet Assigned Number Authority which is an organization who managed allocation of globally unique IPs. Bogon IP adddress/ranges should not appear on the public Internet so network engineers should filter these as they are meant for use only in private networks  and considered reserved for special purposes. You can refer to Team Cymru website…

Networking

This is very useful for IP address planning and management especially for network engineers as part of designing their network. This is one of the consideration in proper assignment of IPs to the network devices and hosts.    IPv4 Address Classes Classes IP Address Range A 0.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 B 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255 C 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255 D 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255 E 240.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255 Reserved (Private) IPv4 Classes IP Address Range A 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 B 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255…

Networking

Here’s the Cisco IOS-XR commands vs Huawei OS commands Cisco IOS-XR Huawei BASIC show display     | include | include ..formal |   configure system-view shutdown shutdown  no shutdown undo shutdown     no undo  clear  reset show running-config display current-configuration show version display version    show tech-support display diagnostic-information show configuration (after change)   clear counters <interface> reset counters <int> clear line <line><line number>       terminal length <num>   screen-length disable terminal width <num>   terminal…

Networking

Here’s the Cisco IOS-XR commands vs Juniper OS commands Cisco IOS-XR Juniper OS BASIC show show     | include | match ..formal |       display set    configure        configure/edit shutdown      disable   no shutdown  delete interface <interface> disable     no        delete   clear  clear show running-config show configuration  show version show version    show tech-support request support information  show configuration (after change) show | compare (after change) clear counters <interface>  clear interface…

Cisco Juniper Networking

100G transceivers have been around for few years already and it is getting affordable since 2016 I guess, and it is now practical to shift to 100G instead of burning N x 10GEs.  To see more info about 100G transmission principles, I find this link very informative -> https://community.fs.com/blog/understand-100g-transceivers-transmission-principles.html Here are sample 100G transceivers we deployed in our datacenters, it really depends on what type of vendor or hardware you have, but the most popular now is the QSFPs Juniper QSFP-100GBASE-LR4…

Networking