Category: <span>Networking</span>

  RFC or Request for Comments is a publication in a series from the principal technical development and standards-setting bodies for the Internet. It contains technical specifications and organizational for Internet and TCP/IP. It is produced by Internet Engineering Task Force or (IETF). Those members of Internet Society (ISOC) can submit RFCs for consideration. 5 Classifications of RFC which is reviewed by different technical groups. Required Recommended Elective Limited Use Not Recommended 3 Stages of Development or maturity levels based…

Networking

IANA or Internet Assigned Numbers Authority is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other Internet protocol resources including Autonomous System (AS) numbers used for routing Internet traffic. IANA established the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address in geographical regions.There are total of five Regional Internet Registry (RIR) service regions currently. RIR RIR Name Service Region Website Established AFRINIC African Network Coordination Centre Africa https://www.afrinic.net 2005 APNIC Asia-Pacific Network Coordination Centre Asia Pacific,…

Networking

Network ports are software defined number  that is associated to a network protocol that transmits or receives or transmits communication for a specific application or service. It is used by Transport Layer of IP Suite, e.g. TCP & UDP. A port number is a 16-bit unsigned integer that ranges from 0 to 65535. There are 3 types of network ports. Port Range Port Types Description 0 – 1023 Well-know Ports For common TCP/IP applications (assigned and controlled) 1024 – 49151…

Networking

Network ports are software defined number  that is associated to a network protocol that transmits or receives or transmits communication for a specific application or service. It is used by Transport Layer of IP Suite, e.g. TCP & UDP. A port number is a 16-bit unsigned integer that ranges from 0 to 65535.There are 3 types of network ports. Port Range Port Types Description 0 – 1023 Well-know Ports For common TCP/IP applications (assigned and controlled) 1024 – 49151 Registered…

Networking

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) – is a connection-oriented communications protocol that is used to ensure reliable transmission of packets between computing devices in a network. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – is a connection-less communications protocol that is used especially for time-sensitive and low latency transmissions across the network. Here’s a table of comparison: Parameter TCP UDP Protocol connection-oriented connection-less Header Size 20 bytes Static header 8 bytes Checksum Compulsory Optional Overhead Heavy as it needs 3 packets to setup a…

Networking

Some Useful 10GBASE Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP) Transceiver Modules Model Distance Wavelength  Mode Medium Interface  Temp. SFP-10G-SR 300m 850nm Multimode Fiber Duplex LC 0-70℃ SFP-10G-LR 10km 1310nm Singlemode Fiber Duplex LC 0-70℃ SFP-10G-LRM 220m 1310nm Multimode Fiber Duplex LC 0-70℃ SFP-10G-ER 40km 1550nm Snglemode Fiber Duplex LC 0-70℃ SFP-10G-ZR 80km 1550nm Singlemode Fiber Duplex LC 0-70℃ Parameter 10GBASE-LR 10GBASE-ER 10GBASE-ZR Transmit Power (max) −1.0 dBm 2.0 dBm 4.0 dBm Transmit Power (min) −6.0 dBm −1.0 dBm 0.0 dBm Receive power…

Networking

Here’s a comparison table between the two network models: Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) vs Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Similarities: both are defined in layered architecture both define standards for networking both are logical models both provide framework for creation and implementation of  networking standards and devices both models simplify network troubleshooting process Differences: OSI is protocol independent standard while TCP/IP model is based on standard protocols which Internet has developed OSI model is developed by International Standard Organization (ISO)…

Networking

  Here’s you can choose to remember the 7 Layers of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) From Application to Physical: (A)pplication (A)ll (P)resentation (P)eople (S)ession (S)eem (T)ransport (T)o (N)etwork (N)eed (D)ata Link (D)ata (P)hysical (P)rocessing Some other Mnemonics are: A Penguin Said That Nobody Drinks PepsiA Priest Saw Two Nuns Doing PushupsAll Pros Search Top Notch Donut Places From Physical to Application: (P)hysical (P)lease (D)ata Link (D)o (N)etwork (N)ot (T)ransport (T)hrow (S)ession (S)ausage (P)resentation (P)izza (A)pplication (A)way Some other Mnemonics are:…

Networking

OSI or Open Systems Interconnection model consists of 7 Layers that describes how telecommunication or computing systems use to communicate or operate over a network. It was the first standard model for network communications and still widely used for network isolation and troubleshooting. Layers Functions / Applications Data Types Examples (7) Application End User / Desktop-Mail Services-Directory Services-Network Virtual Terminal-File transfer access/management Data HTTP,SMTP,FTP,SSH,DNS,Telnet,IMAP,POP3,LDAP,HTTPs,TFTP (6) Presentation Syntax/ Data Representation-Translation-Encryption/Decryption (plain to cipher text)-Compression Data ASCII,JPEG,MPEG,GIF,EBDIC (5) Session Dialog Coordination-Session establishment/maintenance/termination-Synchronization-Dialog…

Networking

We are going to configure VRRP between the 2 pairs of routers and the expected behavior, setup as per below: Setup: 1. Routers PE1,PE2,FW1 and FW2 are connected to the same Layer 2 Switch and belongs to the same VLAN. 2. L2-Switch will just function as Layer 2 switch (subnet 192.168.2.240/29) 3. VRRP is configured between PE1 & PE2 3. VRRP is configured between FW1 & FW2   Fig.1 IP & VRRP Configuration: L2-SWITCH L2-SWITCH#conf t a. Setup access VLAN…

Cisco Networking